LAKEHAVEN UTILITY DISTRICT
COMPREHENSIVE WATER SYSTEM PLAN
This report updates the Comprehensive Water
System Plan (WSP) developed in 1991 for the Lakehaven Utility District
(District). The WSP's purpose is to schedule the orderly development of
District programs and facilities. Principal objectives of this update are as
- Describe the existing system, establish
future service area boundaries, and summarize service area policies (see
- Forecast demographic growth for
single-family residents, multi-family residents, and employment (see
- Summarize how planning efforts of the
South King County Regional Water Association, Pierce County, and other
purveyors relate to this plan update (see Chapter 3.0).
- Forecast water demand growth while
accounting for the effects of demographic growth, conservation, price
changes, and climate patterns (see Chapter 4.0).
- Adopt new conservation measures that are
cost-effective and either reduce per-capita unit demand or conserve
potable water supplies normally consumed for non-potable uses. Indicate
the District's progress toward meeting King County's conservation goal
for reducing per-capita unit demand (see Chapter 5.0).
- Adopt new water reuse measures that are
cost-effective and either conserve potable water supplies normally
consumed for non-potable uses or augment the District's groundwater
supplies (see Chapter 6.0).
- Characterize the need for new water
supplies and schedule supply acquisition to meet the District's future
average-day and maximum-day water demand (see Chapter 7.0).
- Characterize the water system's
capabilities during short-term and long-term water demand conditions
(i.e., 2003 and 2017, respectively); and develop a plan to provide
adequate transmission, distribution, storage, and supply facilities in
the service area through 2017 (see Chapters 8.0 and 9.0).
- Assess water quality issues and determine
treatment requirements for the District based on existing and
anticipated state and federal regulations. Develop a treatment plan for
the service area (see Chapter 10.0).
- Develop a six-year capital improvement
plan that schedules projects already initiated, new necessary projects,
new optional projects, and non-capital revenue requirements. Estimate
the six-year revenue requirement for unscheduled projects that may or
may not be completed during the next six years. The six-year capital
improvement plan includes all projects recommended based on the source
of supply, system, and water quality analyses (see Chapter 11.0).
- Characterize the financial condition of
the District, assess options for generating revenues; and, evaluate the
District's ability to meet the revenue requirements to finance the
six-year capital improvement plan (see Chapter 12.0).
This plan is intended to comply with the
applicable requirements of the Washington State Department of Health (DOH),
King County, City of Federal Way (Federal Way), and other jurisdictions
located within the District's water service area. The Washington State
Department of Health requires all purveyors with systems that serve more
than 1,000 connections to have a WSP approved by DOH, pursuant to Washington
Administrative Code (WAC) 246-290-100 and WAC 246-290-140. This WSP must be
updated every six years.
The District's water service area is located
in the Southwest corner of King County. As of 30 April 1997, the District
was servicing a residential population of approximately 97,000 through
25,667 total connections. The water system includes approximately 450 miles
of water mains, 20 active wells, and 12 storage tanks. The average daily
water use is about 10.6 million gallons per day (MGD). Customers are
primarily supplied with groundwater from the District's four major aquifer
systems. Since 1991, the District has been buying surface water from Tacoma
Public Utilities (Tacoma) to supplement and conserve groundwater supplies.
The future service area for the District is shown in Figure 1-3.
Demographic forecasts are basic planning
elements because they determine water demand growth in the District. The
expected rate of water demand growth determines when additional facilities
will be required and what capacity will be necessary.
Demographic forecasts were developed for both
population and employment. Development of these forecasts is discussed in
Chapter 2.0. The forecasts were developed based on the most recently adopted
land use plans and policies of municipalities and counties located within
the District's water service area.
Demographic forecasts were projected through
2017 for two scenarios. Scenario One is based on the most recently adopted
land use plans and policies of local municipalities and counties. Scenario
Two is similar to Scenario One except that it assumes a less aggressive
growth rate for employment. The 2017 forecast under Scenario Two projects
approximately 18,000 fewer employees than the Scenario One forecast. Table
ES-1 summarizes the population and employment forecasts for both scenarios.
POPULATION AND EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS
Consideration was given to both forecasting
scenarios. Scenario One was selected for subsequent planning purposes in an
effort to be consistent with the land use planning and policies of affected
jurisdictions, despite the possibility that the employment forecast may be
The District's Comprehensive Water System
Plan has been updated to be consistent with related coordinated water system
plans and individual water system plans of neighboring utilities. The major
relationships between related plans and the District's planning efforts are
discussed in Chapter 3.0.
Water demand forecasts are used to determine
the timing and amount of future supply and facility needs. Forecasts were
developed for average-day demand (ADD) and maximum-day demand (MDD) through
2017. Separate sets of forecasts were developed with and without
implementation of the recommended new conservation measures discussed in
Chapter 5.0. Tables 4-3 through 4-10 show water demand forecasts in
aggregate form, disaggregated according to short-term versus long-term
planning horizons, disaggregated according to pressure zone group, and in
terms of Equivalent Residential Units. Table ES-2 shows the water demand
forecast used for planning purposes.
ADOPTED WATER DEMAND FORECAST
(a) 1997 actual ADD was 10.2 MGD
(b) 1997 actual MDD was 21.2 MGD; 1998 actual MDD was 22.1 MGD
The water demand forecast used for planning
includes the water savings from implementing the new conservation measures
recommended in Chapter 5.0 and uses single- and multi-family unit-demands
that could be expected during drought conditions in summer months.
Maximum-day water demand projections are based on an annual MDD-to-ADD
peaking factor that is estimated to be 2.34 through 2003 and is expected to
decrease to approximately 2.14 by 2017.
Appendix B shows the methodology and analysis
of single-family and multi-family unit demand in the District. More
forecasting detail was given to the single-family residential and
apartment/mobile home billing classes because they have historically
accounted for more than 80 percent of the District's consumption.
Econometric models were developed for single- and multi-family unit demand
to predict unit-consumption based on the effects of climate, weather, water
price change, and conservation education. Simpler, trend-based projection
methods were used for the commercial, irrigation, sprinkler/fire, and public
authority billing classes.
Until the time of this planning effort, the
District has been achieving conservation goals primarily through consumer
education and technical support. In the future, the District plans to
implement additional conservation measures that involve distribution of
water saving devices and other incentive-based programs. The analysis and
selection of new conservation measures is discussed in Chapter 5.0.
Implementation of these new conservation measures will help the District
meet the following water conservation goals:
- By the year 2000, reduce overall
per-capita water use by 8 percent through conservation relative to the
District's base year of 1989 when the District began implementation of
conservation programs. It is anticipated that the District will achieve
a per-capita water consumption reduction in excess of the 8 percent goal
- Reduce single- and multi-family
residential unit demand.
- Reduce total peak day demand.
- Explore markets and opportunities to
conserve potable water supplies by using reclaimed water to meet
non-potable water demand in the District.
An economic analysis was used to compare the
unit cost of implementing a conservation measure with the expected unit cost
of purchasing Second Supply Project (Pipeline 5) water from Tacoma. The
expected water cost of the Second Supply Project is representative of the
marginal cost of the District's water supply (e.g. the cost of the next
increment of water supply). As such, it represents the economic cost of new
water supplies (beyond current and pending supplies) that can be avoided
through water conservation. This analysis is based on anticipated water
savings, capital cost estimates, and annual operating cost estimates.
Measures that had a unit cost of implementation cheaper than the unit cost
of supply are recommended for District consideration.
Implementation schedules and costs for the
selected measures are shown in Table 5-7. Measures not selected for
implementation should be reevaluated in the District's next update of the
comprehensive water system plan; the unit cost of supply may increase
compared to the unit cost of conservation measure implementation.
Projected per-capita water savings are listed
in Table 5-8. The District's reduction in per-capita water use relative to
1989 is expected exceed the goal of 8 percent for 2000.
Water reuse is an additional form of
conservation that the District is exploring. Potential water reuse
applications addressed in Chapter 6.0 are landscape irrigation, commercial
indoor use for non-potable applications (e.g., toilet flushing), and aquifer
recharge. Chapter 6.0 also presents the analysis results of developing a
reclaimed water system to provide commercial landscape irrigation in several
areas of Federal Way. The potential role of aquifer recharge with reclaimed
water, either through surface spreading or direct injection, is also
discussed in Chapter 7.0.
Water reuse for commercial indoor non-potable
applications and commercial landscape irrigation does not appear to be
economically competitive with purchasing Second Supply Project water from
Tacoma. Accordingly, the reclaimed water system discussed in Chapter 6.0 is
not recommended for implementation at this time.
Aquifer recharge with reclaimed water has not
been fully explored by the District. Future feasibility studies will focus
on various potential surface spreading and direct injection sites located
throughout the District. The District plans to implement cost-effective and
feasible aquifer recharge projects as warranted by future supply needs.
WATER RESOURCES AND SOURCE OF SUPPLY ANALYSIS
The District has developed a water supply
plan to meet the District's potable water demands with a goal of bringing
water supplies on-line just prior to their need. To meet this goal, the
District evaluated the feasibility of using existing, interim, potential,
and pending water supplies. Seasonal and long-term water management
strategies were also considered to optimize the use of water resources.
The District's existing water sources are
predominantly groundwater supplies. The District's groundwater supplies
originate from four aquifer systems: the Redondo-Milton Channel (RMC)
Aquifer, Mirror Lake Aquifer (MLA), Eastern Upland (EUP) Aquifer, and the
Federal Way Deep (Deep) Aquifer. The combined production limit for these
aquifers on an average-annual basis is 10.1 MGD during average precipitation
and 9.0 MGD during a simulated 10-year drought. The current peak-day
combined pumping capacity is 31.0 MGD. The District has secured water
rights for all of its active wells except Well 25. See Section 7.2.4 for
further discussion of water rights associated with the District's wells. The
District is also completing a Wellhead Protection Program intended to
identify the areas contributing water to the wells supplying the water
system and to develop an appropriate management plan to protect water
quality (see Section 7.2.3).
The District has secured interim water
supplies by initiating water deliveries from Tacoma through two existing
interties to accommodate ongoing growth. These water deliveries are
primarily surface water diversions from the Green River. The agreement
provides for delivery of up to 1.8 MGD during the period from May through
October and up to 5.8 MGD during the period from November through April.
The District and Tacoma recently negotiated
completed an agreement to construct the NE Tacoma/Federal Way Transmission
Main and purchase wholesale water. This 5.8 mile long transmission main will
be financed by the District and become the lower portion of Second Supply
Pipeline when it is complete. The District would receive an appropriate
credit for its remaining capital cost share of the Second Supply Pipeline
Project. Prior to completion of the Second Supply Project, Tacoma will
provide the District 2 MGD of firm water with a maximum delivery rate of 3
MGD. Up to 5 MGD of winter water may also be purchased on an as-available
basis with a maximum delivery rate of 7 MGD. This wholesale water supply
agreement remains in effect until the Second Supply Project is completed and
the District able to take full delivery of its agreed upon water from the
Second Supply Pipeline. The NE Tacoma/Federal Way Transmission Main is
expected to be operational in April 2000.
Tacoma, the District, and other South King
County purveyors have negotiated the Conceptual Agreement for the Second
Supply Pipeline and Associated Components. Key provisions to the District
include the right to use approximately 1/9th (7.2 MGD) of the Second
Diversion Water Right, the right to at least 1/9th of the pipeline's
capacity and the unused capacity of others at no cost, the right to
participate in Howard hanson Storage - Phase II, and other provisions.
Potential water supplies that are also discussed in Chapter 7.0 include:
additional groundwater from the Eastern Upland Aquifer, winter water from
Seattle Public Utilities, emergency intertie with the City of Auburn, water
reclamation for aquifer recharge, Pierce County groundwater, seawater
desalination, and barged water.
Since water supply availability does not
often coincide with water demand patterns, optimal uses of available water
supplies is difficult. The District is developing water management
strategies that will minimize this difficulty, utilizing aquifer storage and
surface reservoir storage schemes. The District has been exploring the
feasibility of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) in its MLA and RMC
aquifers since 1993. The original concept for the MLA aquifer was named
Optimization of Aquifer Storage for Increased Supply (OASIS). The District
has completed feasibility studies and since January 1998 has conducted field
studies using groundwater for ASR in the MLA. The District will use surface
water for ASR field studies once the Northeast Tacoma/Federal Way
Transmission Main is complete. The main will convey the required surface
water supply to the central part of the water system for ASR testing. The
District also plans to expand its ASR program to include recharge of the RMC
aquifer, either with surface water or reclaimed water. Aside from ASR
testing, the District is exploring water management strategies associated
with the Howard Hanson Dam Additional Water Storage Project, discussed in
The recommended water management plan
consists the following water supply, water management, and resource
- Complete and start-up the NE
Tacoma/Federal Way Transmission Main by 2000.
- Continue participation in the Second
Supply Project and develop a cost containment strategy and program
management strategy to provide completion by 2004.
- Develop additional water supplies as
required by water demand growth.
- Evaluate the need for additional water
supplies on an ongoing basis.
- If more cost-effective supplies are
developed, consider using the less cost-effective supplies to provide
wholesale water to other utilities.
- Continue development of the ASR program so
it is available in 2004 and solicit regional participation.
- Continue participation in the Howard
Hanson Storage Project - Phase I, develop a cost containment strategy,
and encourage increased Federal participation.
- Continue participation in Howard Hanson
Storage Project - Phase II until sufficient information is developed to
allow economic analyses.
- Until the Second Supply Project is
complete, continue to balance the objectives of maintaining groundwater
levels and providing a low-cost water supply by maximizing the use of
wholesale Tacoma water, as practicable, and complementing this supply
with groundwater up to its sustainable yield of 10.1 MGD.
- When the Second Supply Project is
completed, utilize this water to the maximum extent possible including
the use of unused winter water of other project participants.
- Fill the District's capacity in Howard
Hanson Storage Project - Phase I as soon as possible to assure water
supply availability during peak demand periods and allow Second Supply
Project water to be used in May and June.
- Maximize the use of the District's
capacity in Howard Hanson Storage Project - Phase I and utilize releases
during the peak demand period.
- When the District or other Second Supply
Project participants have unused stored water in Howard Hanson Storage
Project - Phase I on 1 October, utilize this water for groundwater
recharge or "in-lieu-of-direct-use" in the District's ASR
- Provide both seasonal and long-term ASR
storage. In general, use the RMC Aquifer for seasonal storage and the
MLA for long-term storage.
- Utilize Second Supply Project water not
directly used by the District or other participants for ASR.
- Utilize groundwater during the Howard
Hanson Storage Project - Phase I fill period to meet water demands
during the summer and to meet peak daily demands.
- Continue to implement a water conservation
- Evaluate and explore wholesale water sales
to other utilities as excess water supply becomes available.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS
Design and construction standards for supply,
storage, transmission, and distribution facilities were updated as part of
this planning effort. These criteria are summarized in Chapter 8.0. These
criteria are also discussed in the Lakehaven Utility District Water System
and Sewer System Standards that are incorporated into this WSP by reference.
Level of service criteria were developed for
fire protection service and are discussed in Chapter 8.0. The District
worked with local fire authorities and State DOH officials to develop the
following level of service policy goals that were adopted by the Board of
Commissioners on 16 April 1998:
- For single-family residential areas, the
District goal is to provide 1,000 gpm. Duplexes are assumed to be
included in single-family residential areas.
- For multi-family, commercial, industrial,
and institutional areas, the District goal is to provide 2,500 gpm.
- Changes in the Uniform Fire Code that
require higher fire flow requirements will not be applied retroactively
to existing facilities.
The existing water system consists of two
major pressure zones: Pressure Zone 538 and subpressure zones (538 Zone),
and Pressure Zone 578 and subpressure zones (578 Zone). Chapter 9.0 includes
a water system schematic that depicts how existing facilities are oriented
within these two major pressure zones (see Figure 9-1).
The 538 Zone has five storage tanks with a
total volume of 13.85 million gallons (MG) including inactive volume,
production access to 19 of the 20 active wells, and the District's only two
continuously operating interties, Tacoma Interties No. 2 and 3. With nearly
all of the supply provided initially to the 538 Zone, an important feature
of the overall water system is the supply transfer from the 538 Zone to the
578 Zone. This is accomplished using three booster pump stations and Well
25, which can produce water directly to both major systems.
The 578 system has five storage tanks with a
total volume of 16.0 MG and production access to two of the 20 active wells
(Wells 10C and 25). An additional 1.5 MG of storage volume is available
in Pressure Zone 334, which is supplied by gravity from the 578 system.
Further description of the existing system is provided in Chapters 1.0
Modeling analyses were conducted to evaluate
the hydraulic and storage performance of the existing facilities to meet
demand conditions in 2003 and 2017. The modeling analyses were performed
using the District's Water Hydraulic Model that was developed and calibrated
in 1994. This model allows the District to analyze the system under various
storage, pumping, and demand condition scenarios.
For hydraulic analyses, static modeling
(i.e., steady-state modeling) was performed. Chapter 9.0 discusses the
various types of hydraulic conditions that were analyzed, including normal
peak-day and peak-hour demand (PHD) conditions, fire flow events, the loss
of a major booster pump station or storage component, and the addition of
Pipeline 5 water in the 538 and 578 systems. These analyses are discussed in
greater detail in Appendix F.
The hydraulic analyses results indicate that
the system is capable of meeting level of service goals through 2017 with
minor main improvements. Improvements scheduled by the District include
upsizing mains near critical fire flow event locations (Sacajawea Junior
High School and in the Grand View residential neighborhood), improving
supply redundancy to Pressure Zone 490 and its subpressure zones, other
miscellaneous improvements that address transmission reliability and
excessive velocities during fire flow. The District is also implementing
assessment and replacement programs for aging mains and service lines.
The hydraulic analyses identified several
areas in the system that experience low-pressure due to their high elevation
relative to the system's hydraulic grade. These areas receive adequate
service pressure during fire flow events [greater than 20 pounds per
square inch (psi)], but during PHD the pressure is less than the 30 psi
criteria DOH implemented in 1978. DOH has indicated that the 30 psi minimum
pressure requirement for PHD does not retroactively apply to water systems
constructed prior to 1978. The District plans to make information available
to customers in these areas on the use of individual booster pumps to
increase service pressure.
For storage analyses, extended-period
simulation modeling was conducted to evaluate the storage drawdown during
fire flow events and to evaluate storage equalization during multiple-day
periods of maximum-day demand conditions. Before the storage analyses were
modeled, three different supply approaches were considered for providing
equalization, fire suppression, and standby supply. Two of the approaches
relied only on gravity storage to provide fire suppression and standby
supply: the Basic Storage Approach and the Consolidated Storage Approach.
Preliminary analyses showed that these approaches would require
approximately 4 to 5 MG of additional storage (active plus inactive) by
2003. The third approach relied less on gravity storage to provide standby
supply. This approach was the Backup Power Approach and was ultimately
selected for planning purposes.
The key feature of the Backup Power Approach
is that standby supply is to be primarily provided by wells and booster
pumps equipped with backup power generation facilities. Several criteria
were used to select which pumps should receive backup power. One criterion
was that the combined capacity of the sources would approximately equal
average-day demand. Gravity storage facilities under the Backup Power
Approach are relied upon to provide equalizing and fire suppression supply.
The storage analyses model was conducted
using the Backup Power Approach. Results are shown in detail in Appendix F
and summarized in Chapter 9.0. Improvement requirements based on these
storage analyses include the following:
- Installation of backup power at Wells 10,
10A, 16, 17B, 25, and at the 320th St. and 337th St. Booster Pump
- Seismic upgrade of the 312th St. Tank to
keep it in service.
- Installation of additional boosting
capacity to the 578 system, presumably near the intersection of 23rd
Avenue South and South 320th Street.
The Backup Power Approach required much less
capital investment in new facilities than the Basic and Consolidated Storage
Approaches. The Backup Power Approach also improved the District's level of
standby supply service. Standby supply will be available indefinitely from
the pumped sources with backup power, whereas the Basic and Consolidated
Storage Approaches provide for only one day of standby supply using gravity
WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS
Historically, the District has not had to
treat its water supplies prior to distribution. Groundwater quality has
generally been sufficient. Chlorination (for disinfection purposes) is the
only treatment regularly provided by the District at Well sites 15, 15A,
19/19A, and 21. Chlorination is provided at these sites because water from
these wells is blended with chlorinated water imported from Tacoma. The
Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) requires purveyors to maintain a
chlorine residual within the portions of the distribution system receiving
surface water. Disinfection facilities are also present at Well sites 10C,
20, 22/22A, and 23/23A to provide hydrogen sulfide control and/or
disinfection during seasonal and emergency situations.
The District's status with respect to
regulated drinking water contaminants covered by the WAC 246-290 and
anticipated water quality regulations is summarized in Chapter 10.0.
Regulations that are prompting future treatment of the District's
groundwater supplies are the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR), the anticipated
Ground Water Rule, and the SWTR due to the increased distribution of surface
water throughout the District's distribution system.
The LCR was developed to reduce the
corrosivity of the water which can result in increased lead and copper
concentrations at customer's taps. The District monitored lead and copper
concentrations at selected high-priority sites (single-family residences
with copper plumbing and lead soldered joints constructed after 1982). Tap
monitoring results indicated that copper concentrations exceeded the Action
Level and lead concentrations were well below the Action Level. As a result,
the District must implement corrosion control measures to reduce copper
concentrations at the tap. To accomplish this, the District plans to
initially add a phosphate compound. If further treatment is necessary to
lower copper levels, the District plans to adjust the pH with caustic soda
at all wells with pH < 7.5. The pH of the water that the District
purchases from Tacoma has already been adjusted to approximately 7.5 or 7.6.
The Ground Water Rule is part of a
multi-barrier approach expected to be implemented by the EPA to preserve
groundwater quality and protect customers from groundwater supplies that
could contain microbiological contaminants. The District is already planning
to disinfect it groundwater supplies so the impact of this rule is minimal.
If the District was planning to not implement groundwater disinfection, then
the Ground Water Rule may have required the District to disinfect.
The District decided to implement groundwater
disinfection to avoid water quality impacts associated with mixing
unchlorinated District groundwater with imported or wheeled chlorinated
supplies. The District also wanted to avoid impacts from exporting
unchlorinated District groundwater to other chlorinated systems. All active
wells are scheduled to receive disinfection facilities. For budgetary
purposes, disinfection using onsite generation of 0.8 percent sodium
hypochlorite was assumed. However, the District plans to further investigate
the use of gaseous chlorine, 12 percent sodium hypochlorite, and UV
disinfection before treatment facilities are constructed.
The third component to the District's
groundwater treatment plan is the addition of a phosphate compound to
sequester iron and manganese at all active wells. Historically, the District
has relied upon its ongoing main cleaning and flushing program to manage
iron and manganese precipitate levels in the distribution system. The
addition of pH adjustment and disinfection at District wells is expected to
make iron and manganese more difficult to manage in the distribution system.
The District plans to implement the sequestering treatment program in
conjunction with cleaning and flushing efforts.
The District considered the merits of iron
and manganese removal versus sequestering. It is estimated that removal
treatment at just one site (Well 19A) costs approximately two to three times
as much as sequestering at all active wells. Based on the cost disparity of
removal versus sequestering treatment, the District opted to defer treatment
to remove iron and manganese in favor of first trying the iron and manganese
control with sequestering and main cleaning.
CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT PLAN
A six-year capital improvement plan has been
prepared to schedule the completion of improvement projects between 1998 and
2003 and is discussed in Chapter 11.0. The capital improvement plan includes
scheduling of 26 projects already initiated that will be completed during
the next 6 years, 8 new necessary improvement projects, and 3 new optional
improvement projects. The capital improvement plan also includes cost
estimates for 15 unscheduled improvement projects. Scheduled costs for
additional non-capital revenue requirements (e.g., treatment operation and
maintenance, tank removals, etc.) are also summarized in Chapter 11.0. Table
ES-3 summarizes the cost requirements of the District's six-year capital
COST SUMMARY OF THE SIX-YEAR CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT PLAN(a)
(in thousands of dollars, ENR = 6659)
Scheduled Capital Improvement Projects
Scheduled Non-Capital Cost Requirements
Scheduled Cost Requirements
Unscheduled Improvement Project Cost Requirements
(a) Based on projected water demand.
(b) Six-year totals are rounded to the nearest $100,000.
ASSESSMENT OF REVENUE REQUIREMENTS
An assessment of revenue requirements
associated with the implementation of the capital improvement program
includes the following findings and recommendations:
- Total future capital expenditures (ENR =
6659) through 2003 excluding the NE Tacoma/Federal Way Transmission
Main and Second Supply Pipeline Projects are $21.8 million, including
$3.9 million in expansion-related projects ($27.1 million with the NE
Tacoma/FederalWay Second Supply Pipeline projects) and approximately
$3.8 million in non-capital O&M related expenditures.
- New project funding of up to $29 million
is available under existing user charges, proposed capital facilities
charge revenues, and unencumbered reserves.
- Unscheduled project costs total $9.7
million. This could be debt funded, if supported with additional
revenues. Alternatively, a review of individual project scheduling is
recommended to determine the appropriateness of each project under
District funding criteria.